One of the finer controls in Kubernetes is over container lifecycle; consider that if a Pod is your basic deployment unit, and replication controllers like Deployments and DaemonSets are just reconciliation loops that track the desired number of replicas against the running number of replicas, why shouldn’t you be able to schedule a single-use, or recurring one-off executions of a script in a Pod as well? Well, that’s exactly what the Job resource is for in Kubernetes!
The primary difference between Job and CronJob workloads is exactly what it sounds like; a CronJob will run on a schedule, rather than as a one-off task, and you can mix these workloads, as you’ll see later on. I’ll focus mostly on CronJobs in this piece, but will provide some examples for Job workloads as well.
Consider the following example: I needed a script to periodically pan a directory (mounted as a Volume) of videos, take a screenshot, and store that screenshot in another volume. So, I created a bash one-liner to do that, and created a Docker image that uses that command as an ENTRYPOINT https://blog.codeship.com/understanding-dockers-cmd-and-entrypoint-instructions/.
It doesn’t make sense to run this as a persistent service; I can’t use restart policies, for example, to say I’d like this to happen every 6 hours, and I don’t want to keep the resources required for this locked up when it’s not in-use, so I wrote a CronJob:
apiVersion: batch/v1beta1 kind: CronJob metadata: name: capture-create spec: schedule: "0 * * * *" jobTemplate: spec: template: spec: containers: - name: capture-create image: jmarhee/capture-create:latest env: - name: LNVC_DATA_PATH value: /media - name: LNVC_PREV_PATH value: /captures volumeMounts: - name: lnvc-content-volume mountPath: /media - name: lnvc-caps-volume mountPath: /captures volumes: - name: lnvc-content-volume hostPath: path: /mnt/volume_tor1_01/kube-data/lnvc-data type: Directory - name: lnvc-caps-volume hostPath: path: /mnt/volume_tor1_01/kube-data/images type: Directory restartPolicy: OnFailure imagePullSecrets: - name: myregistrykey nodeSelector: biggie-storage: "true
So, you’ll see in the above, the definition looks a lot like a normal Pod definition, and that’s because it is; you’re defining things like volumeMounts for storage, env for your variables, and even nodeSelector to tell the API where to schedule these containers (in my case, biggie-storage nodes have appropriate space and performance constraints for this job!). The schedule key takes your normal cron syntax [crontab.guru] as a value, and runs the job on that schedule.
When you run kubectl get pods you’ll see the pods as you would for normal workloads, and you’ll also see that the API is cleaning up after these jobs once they exit:
root@krebstar-primary:~# kubectl get pods -l job=capture capture-create-1556492400-nchfh 0/1 Completed 0 3h3m capture-create-1556496000-tkfxz 0/1 Completed 0 123m capture-create-1556499600-jdh65 0/1 Completed 0 63m capture-create-1556503200-4njrv 1/1 Running 0 3m16s
and you’ll see statuses like Completed if the job ran and exited 0, Running for jobs in progress, and Error or whatever failed state for jobs that did not run successfully, and troubleshooting them is similar to any other workload:
kubectl describe pod $POD_NAME
to check the events for that Pod or checking the container workload itself:
kubectl logs $POD_NAME [$CONTAINER if required]
If you’d like to run the job manually, as a one-off task before the next cron run (if the restart policy does not catch the failure, or you’d like to make a change to the job on the spec-level), there is also a mechanism in kubectl to provide for this:
If you have a scheduled CronJob in Kubernetes that has failed, or has no Pods available to complete the task, you can run the task as a Job instead to complete the task.
To create it from the manifest in Kubernetes for the existing CronJob, you can use the from argument with kubectl to define the source job to be templated for the new Job:
kubectl create job my-job --from=cronjob/my-cron-job
which will proceed to schedule the pods for this task. You can modify this Job, after mounting the spec from the failed CronJob, and run this task out of scope for the recurring task, for example, with the edit argument, and then treat this as an at-will workload.
Further Examples & Reading Analyzing Your On-Call Activity with Kubernetes Jobs [https://dev.to/jmarhee/analyzing-your-on-call-activity-with-kubernetes-jobs-4559]
MongoDB Backups with Kubernetes Jobs [https://dev.to/jmarhee/mongodb-backups-with-kubernetes-jobs-2n62]
Kubernetes By Example - Jobs [http://kubernetesbyexample.com/jobs/]